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                                       By: Art J Villanueva, P.E. artjv@byldt.com
                   Arturo J. Villanueva: Past President of the Filipino American Society
            of Architects and Engineers, SoCal Chapter (FASAE-SoCal) (2015-2017).
       There are controversies regarding the presence or non-presence of heavy water under the             Philippine Deep.

        Some claim that deuterium is distributed throughout the waters of the ocean in small                    quantities only. While others claim that a large self-replenishing amount lie under the                  Philippine Deep. The former has been proven true because deuterium is mixed with                      seawater due to wave action. The latter is yet to be proven and could also be true because              the heavy water settles at the bottom of the lighter seawater. That is similar to a layered (or          "stacked") drink, sometimes called a pousse-café, a kind of cocktail in which the slightly                different densities of various liqueurs are used to create an array of colored layers as in                         
       Heavy water is a clean source of energy. According to Wikipedia heavy water is a form of             water that contains only deuterium, a heavy hydrogen different from hydrogen in ordinary           water. It has a natural abundance in the oceans of about 153 parts per million (ppm), atom           for atom. It has a specific gravity of 1.1056 or a weight of 1.1056*62.4=68.99 pounds per               cubic feet(pcf). On the other hand, the specific gravity of sea water is 1.025 or a weight of             1.025*62.4=63.96 pcf. Ordinary or regular water has a specific gravity of 1.000 or a weight           of 1.000*62.4=62.4 pcf. Muddy water, stagnant, has a specific gravity of 1.843 or a weight
       of 1.843*62.4=115 pcf.


       To settle the above controversies, I have a solution.

        My solution is based in the application of hydraulic principle on hydrostatic pressure.                    Pressure is zero at the water surface and increases gradually as we go deeper. Pressure                  variation depends on the density of the liquid and that lighter liquid produces less
        pressure with depth than heavier liquids. If we place them side-by-side (Fig.2), we can
        see the difference of pressures between the three at the same depth. Seawater has the
        least pressure, followed by deuterium and muddy water which is heaviest would have the              greatest pressure.
        By sending an aquadrone or UUV (unmanned underwater vehicle) with a pressure gauge,            samplers and maybe a camera attached, we can verify if deuterium is present in large                    quantities or not. On the sketch on Fig. 3, note the pressure varies from zero at sea level                and increases at a uniform rate as we go deeper. As it reaches heavy water (deuterium),
        the pressure changes to a flatter slope. And as it goes even deeper, when it hits mud, the                change in pressure will become even flatter. Of course, we do not want to go down to
        mud. Next, we obtain water samples at different depths within the 2nd layer indicated
        on the sketch.

        Samples gathered will then be verified in the laboratory.
        How to mine deuterium
        If it can be proven that deuterium is below the Philippine Deep, it can be brought to the                surface relatively easy with minimal pumping. I did an experiment on how to extract it
        and it worked.

      More to follow.



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